Saturday, January 21, 2012

Goat's rue Health Benefits and Side Effects


Goat's rue is is an herbaceous plant, in the genus Galega, belonging to the family Fabaceae, native to to the Middle East. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to increase milk flow, treat diabetes

Health benefits
1. Anti-bacterial activity
In the testing of Alcoholic extracts of Goat's Rue (Galega officinalis L.; Papilionaceae) on Gram +ve and Gram -ve bacteria found that Ethanolic (60%) extract exhibited significant inhibition on growth of both Gram +ve and Gram -ve bacteria, according to "Anti-bacterial activity of Galega officinalis L. (Goat's Rue)" by Pundarikakshudu K, Patel JK, Bodar MS, Deans SG.(1)

2. Weight Loss
In the pharmacological investigations in mice of an ethanolic extract of a powdered mixture of equal proportions of G. officinalis, Cressa cretica, Mangifera indica and Syzygium jambolanum, found that together with its established hypoglycaemic effects, galega has a novel weight reducing action that, in normal mice, is largely independent of a reduction in food intake. The mechanism of the weight reducing action of galega is unclear but involves loss of body fat, according to "Novel weight-reducing activity of Galega officinalis in mice" by Palit P, Furman BL, Gray AI.(2)

3. Platelet aggregation
In the testing of the inhibiting and disaggregating effect of desalted and fractionated herbal extract of Galega officinalis L. on platelet aggregation in vitro, found that at a concentration of 40 micrograms/ml PRP the fraction inhibits the initiation of platelet aggregation by collagen and at 50 micrograms/ml PRP inhibits the initiation of aggregation by thrombin. At a concentration of 65 micrograms/ml PRP the fraction can disaggregate 50% of the aggregated platelet-rich plasma by ADP and 25% of aggregated PRP by collagen, according to "Inhibiting effect of desalted extract from Galega officinalis L. on platelet aggregation" by
Atanasov AT, Spasov V.(3)

4. Anti diabetes
Metformin, derived from the plant Goal's rue is a medication used in treating type 2 diabetes. In the investigation of the exposure-response properties of metformin were characterized in 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus suggested that the clinical utility of metformin was maintained over the dose range evaluated with respect to fasting plasma glucose and lactic acid response, according to "Population exposure-response modeling of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Hong Y, Rohatagi S, Habtemariam B, Walker JR, Schwartz SL, Mager DE.(4)

5. Anti cancers
In the testing of the new cancer drug with two new guanidine-type alkaloids, nitensidines D and E (1, 2), and the known pterogynine (3), pterogynidine (4), and galegine(found abundant in Goal's rue) (5), were isolated from the leaves of Pterogyne nitens found that These compounds were tested against a small panel of human cancer cell lines. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxicity for HL-60 (human myeloblastic leukemia) and SF-245 (human glioblastoma) cells, according to "Cytotoxic guanidine alkaloids from Pterogyne nitens" by Regasini LO, Castro-Gamboa I, Silva DH, Furlan M, Barreiro EJ, Ferreira PM, Pessoa C, Lotufo LV, de Moraes MO, Young MC, Bolzani Vda S."(5)

6. Antihyperglycemic agent
In the synthesis and evaluation of aminoalkylguanidine analogues and derivatives in C57BL/KsJ db/db diabetic mice, found that these compounds are related to galegine, a gamma,gamma-dimethylallylguanidine. Between the newly identified compounds, 1h N-(cyclopropylmethyl)- N'-(4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexylmethyl)guanidine showed the most balanced activity as antihyperglycemic and food intake-reducing agent., according to "Novel substituted aminoalkylguanidines as potential antihyperglycemic and food intake-reducing agents" by Tassoni E, Giannessi F, Brunetti T, Pessotto P, Renzulli M, Travagli M, Rajamäki S, Prati S, Dottori S, Corelli F, Cabri W, Carminati P, Botta M.(6)

7. Etc.

Side effects
1. Overdoses can be danger, please consult with your doctor before taking (a)
2. Do not use the herb in children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist
3. Do not take Goat's rue if you are on hypoglycemic medication.
4. Etc.

Healthy Happy Herbs
A Beginner's Guide To Herbs And
Herb Gardening, Step by step


Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com

Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18055147
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11483386
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10632090
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10462920
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18372428
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19159272
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18465847

Sunday, January 15, 2012

Yohimbe Bark Health Benefits and Side Effects


Yohimbe is the name of an evergreen tree, in the genus Pausinystalia, belonging to the family Rubiaceae, native to the Zaire, Cameroon, and Gabon. Yohimbe Bark has been used as herbal medicine in western Africa as a sexual aphrodisiac, especially in stimulating both erection and salivation, etc.


Health Benefits
1. Body Composition
In the determination of the effects of yohimbine supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in professional soccer players, found that supplementation with yohimbine combined with resistance training does not significantly alter the body mass, muscle mass, or performance indicators in professional soccer players. Nonetheless, yohimbine supplementation appears to be suitable as a fat loss strategy in elite athletes, according to "Yohimbine: The Effects on Body Composition and Exercise Performance in Soccer Players" by Sergej M. Ostojic (1)

2. Antidepressant Activity
In the monitor the effect of addition of yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) to the effect of fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or venlafaxine (dual reuptake inhibitors of both serotonin and norepinephrine) in Porsolt’s forced swim test (FST) using male Laca strain mice, found that yohimbine (2 mg/kg i.p.) was administered 15 min before the administration of different doses of fluoxetine or venlafaxine. Results: Fluoxetine (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) [F = 28.352] or venlafaxine (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg) [F = 17.842] dose-dependently inhibited the immobility period in mice. Addition of yohimbine (2 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant action of fluoxetine or venlafaxine in mouse FST as the animals showed a decrease in the immobility period compared to the fluoxetine or venlafaxine per se group, respectively and concluded that The present study not only demonstrated the association of α2-receptors in the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine or venlafaxine, but also supports its adjuvant therapy with other antidepressant drugs, according to "Effect of Addition of Yohimbine (Alpha-2-Receptor Antagonist) to the Antidepressant Activity of Fluoxetine or Venlafaxine in the Mouse Forced Swim Test" by Ashish Dhir, S.K. Kulkarni(2)

3. Chromium sorption and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III)
in the determination of two low cost sorbents, grape stalks and yohimbe bark wastes used to remove Cr(VI) and Cr(III) from aqueous solutions, results put into evidence that both sorbents are able to reduce Cr(VI) to its trivalent form, according to "Chromium sorption and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by grape stalks and yohimbe bark" by Fiol N, Escudero C, Villaescusa I.(3)

4. Vascular and renal blood movement
In vivo studies with CCD-X in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate a dose-dependent (1-1000 ng/kg) increase in mean blood pressure (p < 0.001) and an increase in medullary blood flow (MBF) (p < 0.001) found that Both the pressor action and renal medullary vasodilation were blocked by endothelinA (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS182874 and endothelinB (ETB) receptor antagonist BQ788 in combination. L-Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg) also inhibited the increase in MBF induced by CCD-X. In vitro studies in isolated perfused kidney and in pressurized renal microvessels confirmed the dose-dependent vasoconstrictor action of this extract. ETA receptor antagonist BQ610 and ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 separately and significantly attenuated the renal vasoconstrictor actions of the extract (p < 0.001 ANOVA), according to "Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats" by Ajayi AA, Newaz M, Hercule H, Saleh M, Bode CO, Oyekan AO.(4)

5. Psychogenic erectile disorder
In the determination of Yohimbine in the management of erectile disorder by means of placebo-controlled but often poorly designed trials, indicated that it does appear to have a modest therapeutic benefit over placebo, particularly in essentially psychogenic erectile disorder, and is generally well tolerated. Yohimbine is not licensed in the UK, according to "Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder" by Riley AJ.(5)

6. Erectile functioning
In the examination of the results of four independent yet convergent meta-analyses to examine the efficacy of yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder from from (i) controlled clinical trials of yohimbine (when used alone), (ii) uncontrolled trials examining yohimbine (alone), (iii) controlled trials of yohimbine when used in combination with other drugs, and (iv) uncontrolled trials of yohimbine plus other drugs, indicated that results document a consistent tendency for yohimbine, and for other medications containing yohimbine, to enhance erectile functioning relative to placebo. We also identify methodological and reporting difficulties that characterize much of the literature, according to "Effectiveness of yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder: four meta-analytic integrations" by Carey MP, Johnson BT.(6)

7. Etc.

Healthy Happy Herbs
A Beginner's Guide To Herbs And
Herb Gardening, Step by step


Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com

Side effects
1. Overdoses and prolonged period of using can caus nervous excitation, e increased heart rate, headache, anxiety, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tremors, sleeplessness, etc., according to "Prescription for Nutritional Healing, fourth edition" by Phyllis A. Balch, CNC
2. The herb may also cause gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination (a)
3. Yohimbe Bark can interact with other anti hypertension and anti depressant medicine.
4. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding with out approval from the related field specialist.
5. Etc.


Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19876857
(1) http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15438620600987106
(2) http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?doi=10.1159/000104877
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17945493
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14735230
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8031688
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8836468

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Health Benefits and Side Effects


Yarrow is a flowering plant in the genus Achillea, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as astringent, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory, antispasmodics agent to promote healing of cuts and wounds, burns and ulcers, skin diseases, digestive disorders, treat menstrual irregularity, relieve menstrual cramps and pain, etc.

Health benefits
1. Hyperactive cardiovascular and airway disorders
In the investigation of the crude extract of Achillea millefolium (Am.Cr) and its hypotensive, cardio-depressant, vasodilatory and bronchodilatory activities, found that Achillea millefolium exhibits hypotensive, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory effects, thus explaining its medicinal use in hyperactive cardiovascular and airway disorders, such as hypertension and asthma, according to "Blood pressure lowering, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory actions of Achillea millefolium" by Khan AU, Gilani AH.(1)

2. Gastroprotective effect
In the evaluation of the efficacy of a hydroalcoholic extract from the Achillea millefolium (HE) for gastroprotective properties and additional mechanism(s) involved in this activity, found that Oral administration of HE (30, 100 and 300mg/kg) inhibited ethanol-induced gastric lesions by 35, 56 and 81%, respectively. Oral treatment with HE (1 and 10mg/kg) reduced the chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid by 43 and 65%, respectively, and promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa after ulcer induction denoting increased cell proliferation, which was confirmed by PCNA immunohistochemistry. HE treatment prevented the reduction of GSH levels and SOD activity after acetic acid-induced gastric lesions. In addition, HE (10mg/kg) inhibited the MPO activity in acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers, according to "Antiulcerogenic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium L.: involvement of the antioxidant system" by Potrich FB, Allemand A, da Silva LM, Dos Santos AC, Baggio CH, Freitas CS, Mendes DA, Andre E, Werner MF, Marques MC.(2)

3. Anxiolytic-like effects
In the evaluation of the potential anxiolytic-like effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium L. in animal models, found that The results indicate that the orally administered hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium L. exerted anxiolytic-like effects that likely were not mediated by GABA(A)/BDZ neurotransmission and did not present tolerance after short-term, repeated administration, according to "Anxiolytic-like effects of acute and chronic treatment with Achillea millefolium L. extract" by Baretta IP, Felizardo RA, Bimbato VF, Santos MG, Kassuya CA, Gasparotto Junior A, da Silva CR, de Oliveira SM, Ferreira J, Andreatini R.(3)

4. Prokinetic effect
In the investigaion of the effect of a standardized dry water extract obtained from A. millefolium flowering tops (AME) on gastric motility, found that (i) AME exerts a direct spasmogenic effect on gastric antrum; (ii) choline is the chemical ingredient responsible of such effect; (iii) the prokinetic effect of AME observed in vivo could provide the pharmacological basis underlying its traditional use in the treatment of dyspepsia, according to "Prokinetic effect of a standardized yarrow (Achillea millefolium) extract and its constituent choline: studies in the mouse and human stomach" by Borrelli F, Romano B, Fasolino I, Tagliatatela-Scafati O, Aprea G, Capasso R, Capasso F, Coppola Bottazzi E, Izzo AA.(4)

5. Antiproliferative activity
In the determination of Achillinin A (2β,3β-epoxy-1α,4β,10α-trihydroxyguai-11(13)-en-12,6α-olide, 1), a new guaianolide isolated from the flower of Achillea millefolium, found that the new isolation exhibited potential antiproliferative activity to A549, RERF-LC-kj and QG-90 cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 5.8, 10 and 0.31 µM, respectively, according to "Achillinin A, a cytotoxic guaianolide from the flower of Yarrow, Achillea millefolium" by Li Y, Zhang ML, Cong B, Wang SM, Dong M, Sauriol F, Huo CH, Shi QW, Gu YC, Kiyota H.(5)

6. Anti leukemia
In the examination of three new antitumor sesquiterpenoids, achimillic acids A, B and C, were isolated as methyl esters from Achillea millefolium found that The compounds were found to be active against mouse P-388 leukemia cells in vivo, according to "Novel antitumor sesquiterpenoids in Achillea millefolium' by Tozyo T, Yoshimura Y, Sakurai K, Uchida N, Takeda Y, Nakai H, Ishii H.(6)

7. Anti aging effect
In the evaluation of evaluate the effect of A. millefolium extract on the expression pattern of various epidermal differentiation markers ex vivo in normal human skin biopsies using quantitative image analysis and its capacity to rejuvenate the appearance of skin surface in vivo.
found that millefolium extract at 2% significantly improved the appearance of wrinkles and pores compared with placebo. Results were also directionally better than those of glycolic acid that was chosen as reference resurfacing molecule, according to "Surface rejuvenating effect of Achillea millefolium extract" by Pain S, Altobelli C, Boher A, Cittadini L, Favre-Mercuret M, Gaillard C, Sohm B, Vogelgesang B, André-Frei V.(7)

8. Vascular inflammation
In the investigation of the effects of Achillea millefolium extract in vitro on the growth of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the potential involvement of estrogen receptors (ERs) in this process, indicated that our findings support some of the traditional uses of A. millefolium, and suggest potential modes of action as related to its effects on vascular inflammation. Therefore, A. millefolium may induce novel potential actions in the cardiovascular system, according to "Vasoprotective activity of standardized Achillea millefolium extract" by Dall'Acqua S, Bolego C, Cignarella A, Gaion RM, Innocenti G.(8)

9. Spermatogenesis
In the investigationof the effects of A. millefolium L. extract on spermatogenesis in adult male wistar rats found that a significant decrease in cell accumulation and vacuolization in seminiferous tubule was seen. At the dose of 800 mg/kg, IP, thickened seminiferous tubules on basal membrane, decrease in cell accumulation in seminiferous tubule, severe disarrangement, degenerative cells and severe decrease in sperm count were seen. At the dose of 800 mg/kg/day, orally, basal membrane was thickened and the disarrangement in cells was demonstrated. As a conclusion, our results suggest that the total extract of A. millefolium L. exhibit temporary antifertile activity in adult male animals, according to "The effect of Achillea millefolium extract on spermatogenesis of male Wistar rats" by Takzare N, Hosseini MJ, Hamideh Mortazavi S, Safaie S, Moradi R.(9)

10. Anti-inflammatory activity
In the examination of the crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition assays for understanding the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action, found that in vitro-antiphlogistic activity of Achillea is at least partly mediated by inhibition of HNE and MMP-2 and -9. After the recently described spasmolytic and choleretic effects the obtained results give further insights into the pharmacological activity of Achillea and confirm the traditional application as antiphlogistic drug, according to "Achillea millefolium L. s.l. -- is the anti-inflammatory activity mediated by protease inhibition?" by Benedek B, Kopp B, Melzig MF.(10)

11. Antioxidants
In the investigation of the antioxidant activity of methanolic and water extracts of Slovene accessions of four medicinal plant species (Salvia officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and Gentiana lutea), found that . Treatment of the immobilized cells with the plant extracts resulted in an increase of the cell membrane potential (membrane hyperpolarization), possibly due to the reduction of membrane damage due to oxidation. The novel cell biosensor could be utilized as a rapid, high throughput tool for screening the antioxidant properties of plant-derived compounds, according to "Evaluation of the antioxidants activities of four Slovene medicinal plant species by traditional and novel biosensory assays" by Kintzios S, Papageorgiou K, Yiakoumettis I, Baricevic D, Kusar A.(11)

12. Antioxidant and Anti microbial activities
In the assessment, in vitro the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan., found that the oil strongly reduced the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (IC(50)=1.56 micro g/ml) and exhibited hydroxyl radical scavenging effect in the Fe(3+)-EDTA-H(2)O(2) deoxyribose system (IC(50)=2.7 micro g/ml). It also inhibited the nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenate (IC(50)=13.5 micro g/ml). The polar phase of the extract showed antioxidant activity. The oil showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Clostridium perfringens, Candida albicans, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Candida krusei while water-insoluble parts of the methanolic extracts exhibited slight or no activity, according to "Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae)" by Candan F, Unlu M, Tepe B, Daferera D, Polissiou M, Sökmen A, Akpulat HA(12)

13. Etc.

Side effect
1. Overdoses can cause gastrointestinal discofort and excessive urination
2. It can cause allergic effect such as skin rash and irritation. etc.
3. Do not use the herb in new born, children, or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist
4. Etc.

Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20857434
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420892
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22155391
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22151891
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21821943
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8069962
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21711463
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21684130
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20515984
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17689902
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20541883
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12860311

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) Health Benefits and Side Effects


Wormwood is a herbaceous, perennial plant in the genus Artemisia, belonging to The family Asteraceae, native to Europe and naturalized in northeastern North America. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and anti-inflammatory agent and cardiac stimulation and to treat gastrointestinal disorders, fever, irregular menstruation, loss of appetite , improve memory and for the restoration of declining mental function, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Neuroprotective effect
In the identification of investigate the potential protective effects of Artemisia absinthium on cerebral oxidative stress and damage as well as behavioral disturbances induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats, found that The brain oxidative stress and damage, and behavioral deficits were significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with the methanol extract of Artemisia absinthium (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and concluded that Artemisia absinthium is neuroprotective and may prove to be useful adjunct in the treatment of stroke, according to "Neuroprotective effect of Artemisia absinthium L. on focal ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury" by Bora KS, Sharma A.(1)

2. Cognitive effects
In the determination of the effect of wornwood on TNF-alpha in Crohn's Disease (CD) patients found that Average serum TNF-alpha level fell from 24.5+/-3.5pg/ml at baseline to 8.0+/-2.5pg/ml after six weeks. The corresponding levels in the control group were 25.7+/-4.6 (week 0), and 21.1+/-3.2 (week 6). On the clinical side, Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) scores fell from 275+/-15 to below 175+/-12 in wormwood group with remission of symptoms in eight patients (CDAI score below 170 or reduction by 70 points), compared to only two in the placebo group (CDAI of placebo group 282+/-11 at baseline and 230+/-14 on week 6), according to "Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) suppresses tumour necrosis factor alpha and accelerates healing in patients with Crohn's disease - A controlled clinical trial" by Krebs S, Omer TN, Omer B.(2)

3. Antioxidants
In the evaluatiopn of the methanol extract of Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Asteraceae; MAB) for its in vitro free-radical scavenging effects using different classical assays, and in vivo antioxidant activity using global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced oxidative stress in mice, found that methanol extract of A. absinthium showed significant (p<0.05) superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, and significant reducing power. Furthermore, in the in vivo studies, oral administration of MAB (100 or 200 mg/kg) inhibited cerebral I/R-induced oxidative stress by decreasing TBARS, and restoring levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH), according to "Evaluation of antioxidant and free-radical scavenging potential of Artemisia absinthium" by Bora KS, Sharma A.(3)

4. Anti-diabetes
In the clarification of the use of thujone, a monoterpene ketone often present in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) or wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, found that after oral treatment with thujone (5 mg/kg bodyweight (bw)/day for 28 days), the cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly adjusted to normal levels when compared to diabetic, untreated rats. While these results sound promising and worthy of further investigation, the well-defined profile of the adverse properties of thujone demands a cautious interpretation of these results. The therapeutic margin of thujone appears to be small, as a dose-related incidence of seizures was noted in 2-year National Toxicology Program studies in rats and mice. The dose level in the diabetic rat study is also considerably higher than a daily intake that is acceptable for humans (0.1 mg/kg bw/day), according to "The choice of thujone as drug for diabetes" by Lachenmeier DW, Walch SG.(4)

5. Cholesterol and triglycerides
In the examination of Thujone effects on lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides) in diabetic rats, found that Oral treatment with thujone (5 mg kg⁻¹ body weight dose) significantly adjusted cholesterol and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats (p ≤ 0.05) to normal levels compared to diabetic untreated rats, according to " Thujone corrects cholesterol and triglyceride profiles in diabetic rat model" by Baddar NW, Aburjai TA, Taha MO, Disi AM.(5)

6. Anti-malarial activity
In the evaluation of the anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan, found that Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results, according to "Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants" by
Irshad S, Mannan A, Mirza B.(6)

7. Antimicrobial activity
In the assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal potential of some Romanian medicinal plants, arnica--Arnica montana, wormwood--Artemisia absinthium and nettle--Urtica dioica,
indicated that in vitro, the studied plant extracts are a significant source of natural alternatives to antimicrobial therapy, thus avoiding antibiotic therapy, the use of which has become excessive in recent years, according to "In vitro antimicrobial activity of Romanian medicinal plants hydroalcoholic extracts on planktonic and adhered cells" by Stanciuc AM, Gaspar A, Moldovan L, Saviuc C, Popa M, Măruţescu L.(7)

8. Antiparasitic effects
In the determination of the efficiency of A. absinthium extract on cats naturally infected with Toxocara cati and the the extract on the embryonic development of T. cati eggs in vitro,
found that in the treatment period, the activities of ALT, AST, ALP, urea and creatinine were located within the physiological ranges in cats. In in vitro trials with A. absinthium extract, the embryonic development of T. cati eggs was identical in all groups (treatment and control). A. absinthium extract did not inhibit larval development in eggs in in vitro trials, according to "Antiparasitic efficiency of Artemisia absinthium on Toxocara cati in naturally infected cats" by Yıldız K, Başalan M, Duru O, Gökpınar S.(8)

9. Hepatoprotective activity
In the evaluation in vivo, the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. (AEAA), found that pretreatment with AEAA significantly (P<0.001) and dose-dependently prevented chemically or immunologically induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, AEAA significantly (P<0.05) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defense antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPx towards normal levels. In the BCG/LPS model, increase of the levels of important pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-alpha and IL-1 was significantly (P<0.01) suppressed by AEAA pretreatment, according to " In vivo hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. against chemically and immunologically induced liver injuries in mice" by Amat N, Upur H, Blazeković B.(9)

10. Etc.

Side effects
1. Do not use the herb if you have experienced seizures and ulcers
2. Do not use Wormwood in newborn, children, or if you are pregnant or breasr feeding without approval from the related field specialist
3. Overdoses can be toxic and cause liver damage
4. It may cause allergic effect to people who are allergic to ragweed and daisies.
5. Etc.

Healthy Happy Herbs
A Beginner's Guide To Herbs And
Herb Gardening, Step by step


Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com

Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20435123
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962291
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21999109
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21988529
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21740283
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21959826
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21717806
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21618184
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20637853

Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Health Benefits and Side Effects


Wild Yam is a twining tuberous vine, in the genus Dioscorea, belonging to the family Dioscoreaceae, native to North America. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat menstrual distress, menopause symptoms, infertilit, morning sickness, bilious colic, colic with spasmodic contractions, paroxysmal abdominal pain and stomach problems, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Menopause symptoms
In the conduction of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of the effects of a wild yam cream in 23 healthy women suffering from troublesome symptoms of the menopause,
found that short-term treatment with topical wild yam extract in women suffering from menopausal symptoms is free of side-effects, but appears to have little effect on menopausal symptoms. It emphasizes the importance of careful study of treatments for menopausal symptoms if women are to be adequately informed about the choices available to them, according to "Effects of wild yam extract on menopausal symptoms, lipids and sex hormones in healthy menopausal women" by Komesaroff PA, Black CV, Cable V, Sudhir K.(1)

2. Anti aging
In the identification of New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market, found that we assessed the top anti-aging creams currently on the market specifically evaluating their botanical ingredients. Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera (grape seed extract), Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis (evening primrose), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice extract), Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin (wild yam), N6 furfuryladenine (kinetin), and Ergothioneine, accoridng to " Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams" by Cronin H, Draelos ZD.(2)

3. Bone density
In the examination of Diosgenin, a steroid saponin extracted from the root of wild yam (Dioscorea villossa) and its claim of osteogenic property, found that diosgenin can enhance bone formation by stimulating the synthesis and secretion of Type 1 collagen and ALP and bone marker proteins Runx2 and osteopontin expression. The increased levels of these marker proteins, in turn, can increase the formation of calcium deposits within the ECM thereby increasing bone formation, according to "Diosgenin stimulates osteogenic activity by increasing bone matrix protein synthesis and bone-specific transcription factor Runx2 in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells" by Alcantara EH, Shin MY, Sohn HY, Park YM, Kim T, Lim JH, Jeong HJ, Kwon ST, Kwun IS.(3)

4. Osteoporosis
In the investigation of Drynol Cibotinis, a newly developed proprietary botanical combination of eight botanicals including Angelica sinensis, Glycine max, Wild yam, Ligustrum lucidum, Astragalus membranaceus, Cuscuta chinensis, Psoraleae corylifoliae, and Drynaria fortune and theirs effect on osteoporosis, found that Cibotin was found to promote cell spreading and greatly increase calcium uptake both instantaneously and in the long term (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Drynol Cibotin significantly increased production of two key extracellular matrix proteins in bone cells: Collagen I and Laminin B2. These results indicate that Drynol Cibotin alone or in combination with amino acids and vitamins may have prophylactic potentials in osteoporosis, according to "Effect of a novel botanical agent Drynol Cibotin on human osteoblast cells and implications for osteoporosis: promotion of cell growth, calcium uptake and collagen production" by Wegiel B, Persson JL.(4)

5. Breast cancer
In the study ofthe estrogenic activity and cellular effect of wild yam extract in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. found that wild yam extract also inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells. These data indicate that wild yam extract acts as a weak phytoestrogen and protects against proliferation in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells, according to "Estrogen activities and the cellular effects of natural progesterone from wild yam extract in mcf-7 human breast cancer cells" by Park MK, Kwon HY, Ahn WS, Bae S, Rhyu MR, Lee Y.(5)

6. Skeletal muscle
In the study of female rats were divided into: (1) controls; (2) ovariectomized rats; (3) ovariectomized rats receiving yam (250, 750, 1,500 mg/kg/day); (4) ovariectomized rats receiving diosgenin (10, 50, 100 mg/kg/day). Yam and diosgenin were administered for 8 weeks, found that Yam, but not its extract (diosgenin), is associated with the regulation of calpain isoforms in ovariectomized rats. Adequate yam supplements might improve the muscular calpain-related physiopathology associated with menopausal status, according to "Effects of yam and diosgenin on calpain systems in skeletal muscle of ovariectomized rats" by
Hsu KH, Chang CC, Tsai HD, Tsai FJ, Hsieh YY.(6)

7. Anxiety and neuroimmunological function
In the investigation of the effects of dioscorea (wild yam), a Chinese medicine, on emotional behavior and IL-2 levels in the brain of ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
found that OVX-induced anxiety and changes in neuroimmunological function in the cortex are reversed by dioscorea treatment. Furthermore, individual differences need to be taken into account when psychoneuroimmunological issues are measured and the EPM is a useful tool for determining anxiety levels when examining anxiety-related issues, accoridng to "Psychoimmunological effects of dioscorea in ovariectomized rats: role of anxiety level" by Ho YJ, Wang CF, Hsu WY, Tseng T, Hsu CC, Kao MD, Tsai YF.(7)

8. Etc.

Healthy Happy Herbs
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For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com

Side effects
1. Wild yam can cause allergic effects, including skin rash, stomach ache, etc.
2. Do not the herb if you are taking birth control pill or under hormone therapy due to hormonal effect without consulting with your doctor.
3. Do not give the herb to newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding with approval from the related field specialist.
4. Extract of wild yam can be toxic and pro-fibrotic in renal cells in long term use(a)
5. Etc.

Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18662738
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11428178
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20883295
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21292464
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19953582
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19222119
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18603503
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17688703

Wild Indigo (Baptisia tinctoria) Health Benefits and Side Effects


Wild indigo, a perennial plant, In the gensu Baptisia, belonging to the family Fabaceae, native to Eastern United States. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as immune stimulant antiseptic, laxative, emmenagogue and anti-parasitic agent and to treat colds and flu, liver diseases, infections of the ear, nose and throat, heal ulcers in the mouth, gingivitis etc.

Health Benefits
1. Immunobalancing
In the investigation of an allopathic herbal combined preparation containing Echinacea root, wild indigo root, and white cedar leaf tips (Echinaceae radix + Baptisiae tinctoriae radix + Thujae occidentalis herba = Esberitox N) effects, indicated that in a recent study compliant to GCP, the therapeutic superiority of the herbal immunomodulator over placebo was confirmed as statistically significant and clinically relevant. The present overview describes a model of the antigen-independent mode of action of phytoimmunomodulation ("immunobalancing"), according to "Efficacy and mode of action of an immunomodulator herbal preparation containing Echinacea, wild indigo, and white cedar" by Wüstenberg P, Henneicke-von Zepelin HH, Köhler G, Stammwitz U.(1)

2. Viral respiratory tract infections
In the comfirmation of the effect of the single active ingredients Echinaceae (purpureae et pallidae) radix, Baptisiae tinctoriae radix and Thujae occidentalis herba as well as of the combination Esberitox N has been verified in vitro, found that the efficacy for viral respiratory tract infections has been proven yet again in recent GCP-compliant, clinical studies (15, 17). Under the influence of the phytotherapeutic the duration of the illness decreased with a responder rate that was significantly higher than under placebo. The therapeutic benefit was even more pronounced, if the pharmaceutical was applied as early as possible. It has a high drug safety, according to "[Pharmacodynamic effects and clinical effectiveness of a combination of herbal substances comprised of Cone Flower, Wild Indigo and White Cedar].[Article in German]" by Köhler G, Bodinet C, Freudenstein J.(2)

3. Common cold
In the verification of the efficacy and safety of an herbal medication containing an extract of a mixture of Baptisiae tinctoriae radix, Echinaceae pallidae/purpureae radix and Thujae, occidentalis herba (SB-TOX) in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs), found that A total of 91 adults (mean age 42.1 +/- 13.0 years) were randomised to receive 19.2 mg of SB-TOX (n=31), 9.6 mg SB-TOX (n=29) or placebo (n=31) three times daily for 3-12 days. Since a "running nose" is the main symptom of a common cold, the total number of facial tissues used throughout the clinical duration of their cold was the primary efficacy parameter. In the intention-to-treat analysis, this total number of tissues decreased with increasing extract dose. The slope across groups according to the Jonckheere test was significant (p = 0.0259). In the high-dose group, the standardised effect size delta/SD was 0.46 compared with placebo. Time to relevant improvement in cold symptoms (measured as the time until less than 30 tissues per day were used) was 1.1 days (95% CI 0.52; 1.67), 0.76 days (95% CI 0.28; 1.24) and 0.52 days (95% CI 0.22; 0.82) in the placebo, according to "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical dose-response trial of an extract of Baptisia, Echinacea and Thuja for the treatment of patients with common cold" by Naser B, Lund B, Henneicke-von Zepelin HH, Köhler G, Lehmacher W, Scaglione F.(3)

4. Immunostimulating activities
In the identification of the effects of he water or alcaline-water extracts of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and -angustifolia DC., Eupatorium cannabinum L. and -perfoliatum L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) (Rauscher), Calendula officinalis L., Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R.B., Achyrocline satureoides DC., Arnica montana L., Sabal serrulata Roem et Schult. and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. polysaccharide fractions with molecular weights in the range of 25 000 to 500 000, found that according to the granulocytes- and carbon clearance tests, showed significant immunostimulating activities. The isolated compounds belong to the group of water-soluble, acidic heteroglycanes. The linkages in the different polysaccharides do not represent a uniform structure type, according to "[Immunostimulant action of polysaccharides (heteroglycans) from higher plants. Preliminary communication].[Article in German]" by Wagner H, Proksch A, Riess-Maurer I, Vollmar A, Odenthal S, Stuppner H, Jurcic K, Le Turdu M, Heur YH.(4)

5. Anti cancers and diseases
In the determination of the relation between immunomodulatory and anti-tumour activities in many Chinese medicinal plants, found that the purification, characterization and structural elucidation of immunomodulatory polysaccharides from medicinal plants may have important implications in the immunotherapy of cancer and in the treatment of various other diseases, according to "Immunomodulatory and anti-tumour polysaccharides from medicinal plants" by Wong CK, Leung KN, Fung KP, Choy YM.(5)

6. Etc.

Side effects
1. Do not use the herb in new born, children, or if you are pregnant or breast feeding with out approval from the related field specialist.
2. Overdoses can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, respiratory paralysis, etc.
3. Etc.

Healthy Happy Herbs
A Beginner's Guide To Herbs And
Herb Gardening, Step by step


Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

For the world most popular herbs list, visit http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.com/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html
other health articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com

Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1382301
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10539093
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244885
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16323289
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6541484
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7895893

Valerian Health Benefits and Side Effects


Valerian is a perennial flowering plant, in the genus Valeriana, belonging to the family Valerianaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia. The herb has been used as a sedative and relaxing agent and to treat the liver, the urinary tract, the digestive tract problem, nerve conditions, etc.

Health Benefits
1.
Insomnia
In the investigation of the extracts of the roots of
valerian (Valeriana officinalis) used for inducing sleep and improving sleep quality, found that valerian might improve sleep quality without producing side effects. Future studies should assess a range of doses of standardized preparations of valerian and include standard measures of sleep quality and safety, according to " Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis" by Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, Patterson M, Mehling W.(1)

2.
Anxiety
In a controlled pilot study on the putative anxiolytic effect of valepotriates, found that the valepotriates may have a potential anxiolytic effect on the psychic symptoms of anxiety. However, since the number of subjects per group was very small, the present results must be viewed as preliminary. Thus, further studies addressing this issue are warranted, according to "Effect of valepotriates (valerian extract) in generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study" by Andreatini R, Sartori VA, Seabra ML, Leite JR.(2)

3. Central nervous system
In the identification of
Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS), indicated that the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones), according to "Herbal extracts and phytochemicals: plant secondary metabolites and the enhancement of human brain function" by Kennedy DO, Wightman EL.(3)

4. Antidepressant effect
In the investigation of the antidepressant effect of dichloromethane extract of Valeriana wallichii patchouli alcohol chemotype, found that The extract demonstrated antidepressant effect and significantly increased the norepinephrine and dopamine levels in forebrain, according to "Antidepressant effect of Valeriana wallichii patchouli alcohol chemotype in mice: Behavioural and biochemical evidence" by Sah SP, Mathela CS, Chopra K.(4)

5. Liver cirrhosis
In the study of the therapeutic effect of the extract of Valeriana jatamansi (family, Valerianaceae) prepared from the dried rhizome of the herb in an animal model of liver cirrhosis and on cell proliferation found that Treatment was found to partially reverse the elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase and selected biochemical markers of hepatic injury including drug-metabolizing enzymes. Histopathology of the hepatic tissue confirmed the therapeutic effect of the extract which corroborated with the biochemical changes. The extract is also reported to ameliorate hepatic cell proliferation in rats injected with thioacetamide. The study has implications in finding a treatment for liver cirrhosis in humans, according to "Valeriana jatamansi partially reverses liver cirrhosis and tissue hyperproliferative response in rat" by Prasad R, Naime M, Routray I, Mahmood A, Khan F, Ali S.(5)

6. Peripheral analgesic effects
In the evaluation of the effect of V. wallichii chemotype (patchouli alcohol) extract (DCME) and essential oil (VPAEO) on experimental models of nociception and to elucidate its possible mechanism of action, found that DCME and VPAEO (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the number of writhings as compared to vehicle treated group. None of the doses of DCME and VPAEO exhibited any effect in tail flick model suggesting only peripheral analgesic activity. When studied for mechanism of action in acetic acid induced writhing, subeffective dose of essential oil significantly potentiated the effect of aspirin while no potentiation was seen in case of extract. These data suggest that essential oil VPAEO exerted peripheral analgesic via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, accoridng to "Elucidation of possible mechanism of analgesic action of Valeriana wallichii DC chemotype (patchouli alcohol) in experimental animal models" by Sah SP, Mathela CS, Chopra K.(6)

7. Alzheimer's disease
In the investigation of the effects of Valeriana amurensis on the expressions of P-APP,A4,1 and Caspase-3 of cortical neurons and hippocampus neurons in in Alzheimer's disease model rats' brain, found that The 50% ethanol extracts of macroporous resin group from the roots and rhizomes of Valeriana amurensis can decrease the expressions of beta-APP, Abeta(1-40), and Caspase-3, to inhibit the formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease model rats' brain, and decrease cell fate of cortical neurons and hippocampus neurons in in Alzheimer's disease model rats' brain, according to "[Effects of Valeriana amurensis on the expressions of beta-APP, Abeta(1-40) and caspase-3 in Alzheimer's disease model rat's brain].[Article in Chinese]" by Zuo YM, Zhang ZL, Wang QH, Xie N, Kuang HX.(7)

8. Antioxidant activity
In the classification of V. officinalis extracts and its antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro, found that The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis, according to "In vitro antioxidant activity of Valeriana officinalis against different neurotoxic agents" by Sudati JH, Fachinetto R, Pereira RP, Boligon AA, Athayde ML, Soares FA, de Vargas Barbosa NB, Rocha JB.(8)

9. Anticonvulsant effect
In the study the effect of valerian extracts on an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for aqueous but not PE extract of valerian. Moreover, CPT as a selective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist decreased the anticonvulsant effect of valerian aqueous extract, according to " Anticonvulsant effect of aqueous extract of Valeriana officinalis in amygdala-kindled rats: possible involvement of adenosine" by Rezvani ME, Roohbakhsh A, Allahtavakoli M, Shamsizadeh A.(9)

10. Relaxing effects
In the investigation of the relaxing effects of Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) on human uterine muscle found that valerian extracts and valepotriates inhibited uterine contractility in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either atenolol or indometacin did not affect the uterine responses to valerian extracts. Valerian extract reduced the maximal contractile response induced by acetylcholine, phenylephrine and histamine independent of the stimulus, according to "Relaxing effects of Valeriana officinalis extracts on isolated human non-pregnant uterine muscle" by Occhiuto F, Pino A, Palumbo DR, Samperi S, De Pasquale R, Sturlese E, Circosta C.(10)

11. Etc.

Side effects
1. Do not use the herb in Newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist
2. Valerian may interact with other medicine, including drugs suppress the central nervous system and include Valium, Xanax, Klonopin, Libruim, etc.

3. Etc.

Healthy Happy Herbs
A Beginner's Guide To Herbs And
Herb Gardening, Step by step


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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17145239
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12410546
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22211188
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21354297
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21225006
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21046983
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20575418
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19191025
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19900527
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19178774